Main Article Content

Xasanova Madina Qaxramon qizi
Abduraxmonova Lobar Nuriddin qizi


A plethora of hormones regulate many of the body’s functions, including growth and development, metabolism, electrolyte balances, and reproduction. Numerous glands throughout the body produce hormones. The hypothalamus produces several releasing and inhibiting hormones that act on the pituitary gland, stimulating the release of pituitary hormones. Of the pituitary hormones, several act on other glands located in various regions of the body, whereas other pituitary hormones directly affect their target organs. Other hormone-producing glands throughout the body include the adrenal glands, which primarily produce cortisol; the gonads (i.e., ovaries and testes), which produce sex hormones; the thyroid, which produces thyroid hormone; the parathyroid, which produces parathyroid hormone; and the pancreas, which produces insulin and glucagon. Many of these hormones are part of regulatory hormonal cascades involving a hypothalamic hormone, one or more pituitary hormones, and one or more target gland hormones.

Article Details

How to Cite
Xasanova Madina Qaxramon qizi, & Abduraxmonova Lobar Nuriddin qizi. (2022). ENDOCRINE GLANDS AND DISEASES IN THE CIS. Galaxy International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, 10(11), 267–269. Retrieved from https://internationaljournals.co.in/index.php/giirj/article/view/2768


CONSTANTI, A.; BARTKE, A.; ANDKHARDORI, R.Basic Endocrinology for Students of Pharmacy and Allied Clinical Health Sciences.Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1998.

DORGAN, J.F.; REICHMAN, M.E.; JUDD, J.T.; BROWN,C.; LONGCOPE, C.; SCHATZKIN, A.; CAMPBELL, W.S.; FRANZ, C.; KAHLE, L.; ANDTAYLOR, P.R. Relation of reported alcohol ingestion to plasma levels of estrogens and androgens in premenopausal women (Maryland, United States). Cancer Causes and Control5(1):53–60,1994.EMANUELE, N., ANDEMANUELE, M.A. The endocrine system: Alcohol alters critical hormonal balance. Alcohol Health & Research World21(1):53–64, 1997.

GAVALER, J.S., ANDVANTHIEL, D.H. The association between moderate alcoholic beverage consumption and serum estradiol and testosterone levels innormal postmenopausal women: Relationship to the literature. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental

PUROHIT, V. Moderate alcohol consumption and estrogen levels in postmenopausal women: A review. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 22(5):994–997, 1998.

REICHMAN, M.E.; JUDD, J.T.; LONGCOPE, C.;SCHATZKIN, A.; CLEVIDENCE, B.A.; NAIR, P.P.;CAMPBELL, W.S.; ANDTAYLOR, P.R. Effects ofalcohol consumption on plasma and urinary hormone concentrations in premenopausal women.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85(9):722–727, 1993.VELDMAN, R.G., ANDMEINDERS, A.E. On themechanism of alcohol-induced pseudo-Cushing’ssyndrome.Endocrine Reviews17:262–268, 1996. WILSON, J.D.; FOSTER, D.W.; KRONENBERG.